Akaike, H. (1974). A new look at the statistical model identification. *IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 19*, 716–723.

Article
Google Scholar

Auty, D, Gardiner, BA, Achim, A, Moore, JR, & Cameron, AD. (2013). Models for predicting microfibril angle variation in Scots pine. *Annals of Forest Science, 70*, 209–218. doi:10.1007/s13595-012-0248-6.

Article
Google Scholar

Bannan, MM. (1966). Spiral grain and anticlinal division in the cambium of conifers. *Canadian Journal of Botany, 44*, 1515–1538.

Article
Google Scholar

Brazier, JD. (1965). An assessment of the incidence and significance of spiral grain in young conifer stems. *Forest Products Journal, 15*, 308–315.

Google Scholar

Burdon, RD, & Low, CB. (1992). Genetic survey of *Pinus radiata*. 6. Wood properties: variation, heritabilities, and interrelationships with other traits. *New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science, 22*, 228–245.

Google Scholar

Cown, DJ. (1992). Corewood (juvenile wood) in *Pinus radiata* - should we be concerned? *New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science, 22*(1), 87–95.

Google Scholar

Cown, DJ, & McConchie, DL. (1981). Effects of thinning and fertiliser application on wood properties of *Pinus radiata. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science, 11*, 79–91.

Google Scholar

Cown, DJ, McConchie, DL, McConchie, MS, Young, GD (1991). Radiata pine wood properies survey. (FRI Bulletin No. 50 (Revised Edition)) Rotorua New Zealand Forest Research Institute.

Cown, DJ, Young, GD, & Kimberley, MO. (1991b). Spiral grain patterns in plantation-grown *Pinus radiata. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science, 21*(2/3), 206–216.

Google Scholar

Cown, DJ, Harrington, J, Bourreau, D, Haug, J, & Lee, J. (2010). Spatial variation in spiral grain: a single stem of *Pinus radiata* D.Don. *New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science, 40*, 211–224.

Google Scholar

Denzler, JK, Weidenhiller, A, & Golser, M. (2015). Property relationships between spruce logs and structural timber. *Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 30*(7), 617–623. doi:10.1080/02827581.2015.1046479.

Article
Google Scholar

R Development Core Team (2013). R: a language and environment for statistical computing. In R Foundation for Statistical Computing (Ed.). Vienna.

Eklund, L, & Säll, H. (2000). The influence of wind on spiral grain formation in conifer trees. *Trees, 14*(6), 324–328. doi:10.1007/s004680050225.

Article
Google Scholar

Fonweban, J, Mavrou, I, Gardiner, B, & Macdonald, E. (2013). Modelling the effect of spacing and site exposure on spiral grain angle on Sitka spruce (*Picea sitchensis* (Bong.) Carr.) in Northern Britain. *Forestry, 86*(3), 331–342. doi:10.1093/forestry/cpt002.

Article
Google Scholar

Gapare, W, Hathorn, A, Kain, D, Matheson, C, & Wu, H. (2007). Inheritance of spiral grain in the juvenile core of Pinus radiata. *Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 37*(1), 116–127.

Article
Google Scholar

Gjerdrum, P, & Bernabei, M. (2009). Three-dimensional spiral grain pattern in five large Norway spruce stems. *Silva Fennica, 43*(3), 457–464.

Article
Google Scholar

Gjerdrum, P, Säll, H, & Storø, HM. (2002). Spiral grain in Norway spruce: constant change rate in grain angle in Scandinavian sawlogs. *Forestry, 75*(2), 163–170.

Article
Google Scholar

Harris, JM. (1989). *Spiral grain and wave phenomena in wood formation*. Berlin: Springer.

Book
Google Scholar

Haslett, AN, Simpson, IG, & Kimberley, MO. (1991). Utilisation of 25-year-old *Pinus radiata* Part 2: warp of structural timber on drying. *New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science, 21*(2/3), 228–234.

Jordan, L, Daniels, RF, Clark, A, & He, R. (2005). Multilevel nonlinear mixed-effects models for the modeling of earlywood and latewood microfibril angle. *Forest Science, 51*(4), 357–371.

Google Scholar

Katz, A, Dunningham, A, & Gordon, A. (1984). *A compatible volume and taper equation for New Zealand* Pinus radiata *D. Don grown under the direct sawlog regime. (FRI Bulletin 67)*. Rotorua: New Zealand Forest Service, Forest Research Institute.

Kimberley, MO, Cown, DJ, McKinley, RB, Moore, JR (in review). Modelling variation in wood density within and between trees in stands of New Zealand-grown radiata pine. *New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science*.

Kozlowski, TT, Hughes, FJ, & Leyton, L. (1967). Movement of injected dyes in gymnosperm stems in relation to tracheid alingnment. *Forestry, 40*(2), 207–219. doi:10.1093/forestry/40.2.207.

Article
Google Scholar

Kubler, H. (1991). Function of spiral grain in trees. *Trees, 5*, 125–135.

Article
Google Scholar

Larson, PR. (1994). *The vascular cambium - development and structure* (p. 725). New York: Springer-Verlag, Berlin. ISBN 3-540-57165-5.

Book
Google Scholar

Lausberg, MJF, Cown, DJ, Gilchrist, K, Skipwith, J, & Treloar, CR. (1995). Physiological ageing and site effects on the wood properties of radiata pine. *New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science, 25*(2), 189–199.

Google Scholar

Moore, JR, Cown, DJ, & McKinley, RB. (2014). Modelling microfibril angle variation in New Zealand-grown radiata pine. *New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science, 44*(1), 25. doi:10.1186/s40490-014-0025-4.

Article
Google Scholar

Northcott, PL. (1957). Is spiral grain the normal growth pattern? *Forestry Chronicle, 33*, 335–352.

Article
Google Scholar

Ormarsson, S, & Cown, D. (2005). Moisture-related distortion of timber boards of radiata pine: comparison with Norway spruce. *Wood and Fiber Science, 37*(3), 424–436.

CAS
Google Scholar

Palmer, DJ, Kimberley, MO, Cown, DJ, & McKinley, RB. (2013). Assessing prediction accuracy in a regression kriging surface of *Pinus radiata* outerwood density across New Zealand. *Forest Ecology and Management, 308*, 9–16.

Article
Google Scholar

Pape, R. (1999). Influence of thinning on spiral grain in Norway spruce grown on highly productive sites in southern Sweden. *Silva Fennica, 33*(1), 3–12.

Article
Google Scholar

Parresol, BR. (1999). Assessing tree and stand biomass: a review with examples and critical comparisons. *Forest Science, 45*, 573–593.

Google Scholar

Pinheiro, JC, & Bates, DM. (2000). *Mixed-effects models in S and S-PLUS*. New York: Springer.

Book
Google Scholar

Pinheiro, J, Bates, D, DebRoy, S, Sarkar, D, R Core Team (2012). *nlme: linear and nonlinear mixed effects models*. R package v.3.1-105.

Riddell, M, Cown, D, Harrington, J, Lee, J, & Moore, J. (2012). Assessing spiral grain angle by light transmission- Proof of concept. *IAWA Journal, 33*(1), 1–14.

Article
Google Scholar

Säll, H (2002). *Spiral grain in Norway spruce*. Acta Wexionensia No. 22/2002. Sweden: Växjö University Press.

Schulgasser, K, & Witztum, A. (2007). The mechanism of spiral grain formation in trees. *Wood Science and Technology, 41*(2), 133–156.

Article
CAS
Google Scholar

Skatter, S, & Kučera, B. (1997). Spiral grain - an adaptation of trees to withstand stem breakage caused by wind-induced torsion. *Holz als Roh - und Werkstoff, 55*(4), 207–213.

Article
Google Scholar

Tian, X, Cown, DJ, & Lausberg, MJF. (1995). Modelling of radiata pine wood properties. Part 1: spiral grain. *New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science, 25*(2), 200–213.

Google Scholar

Tsehaye, A, & Walker, JCF. (1995). Spiral grain in Canterbury *Pinus radiata*: within- and between-tree variations and effect on mechanical properties. *New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science, 25*, 358–366.

Google Scholar

Watt, MS, Palmer, DJ, Kimberley, MO, Hock, K, Payn, TW, & Lowe, DJ. (2010). Development of models to predict *Pinus radiata* productivity throughout New Zealand. *Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 40*(3), 488–499.

Article
Google Scholar

Watt, MS, Kimberley, MO, Harrington, JJ, Riddell, MJC, Cown, DJ, & Moore, JR. (2013). Differences in intra-tree variation in spiral grain angle for radiata pine. *New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science, 43*(1), 12. doi:10.1186/1179-5395-43-12.

Article
Google Scholar

West, GG, Moore, JR, Shula, RG, Harrington, JJ, Snook, J, Gordon, JA, & Riordan, MP. (2013). Forest management DSS development in New Zealand. In J Tucek, R Smrecek, A Majlingova, & J Garcia-Gonzalo (Eds.), *Implementation of DSS tools into the forestry practice* (pp. 153–163). Slovakia: Technical University of Zvolen.

Google Scholar

Wu, HX, Ivković, M, Gapare, WJ, Matheson, AC, Baltunis, BS, Powell, MB, & McRae, TA. (2008). Breeding for wood quality and profit in *Pinus radiata*: a review of genetic parameter estimates and implications for breeding and deployment. *New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science, 38*(1), 56–87.

Google Scholar

Young, GD, McConchie, DL, & McKinley, RB. (1991). Utilisation of 25-year-old *Pinus radiata*. Part 1: wood properties. *New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science, 21*(2/3), 217–227.

Google Scholar