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Fig. 2 | New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science

Fig. 2

From: European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar dispar L.) completes development and defoliates exotic radiata pine plantations in Spain

Fig. 2

a Condition of a severely defoliated radiata pine stand (note the absence of broadleaf saplings and shrubs in the understorey). b Pinus pinaster Ait. (maritime pine) tree unaffected by defoliation within a severely defoliated stand of radiata pine. c Egg masses of Lymantria dispar dispar on the lower bole of a radiata pine tree. d Larva of second instar (above) and fourth instar (below) of Lymantria dispar dispar feeding on radiata pine needles. e Severely defoliated radiata pine stand, with almost total tree mortality

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