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Table 3 Correlation coefficients describing the strength of linear relationships between stand metrics (mean top height, green crown height, volume, mean diameter, basal area, and stand density) with LiDAR and stand metrics

From: Use of LiDAR to estimate stand characteristics for thinning operations in young Douglas-fir plantations

Variable Mean top Crown Volume Mean Basal Stand
  Height Height   Diameter Area Density
LiDAR height percentiles      
H 01 0.71*** 0.85*** 0.85*** 0.49*** 0.78*** 0.14ns
H 05 0.77*** 0.82*** 0.89*** 0.58*** 0.83*** 0.10ns
H 10 0.82*** 0.82*** 0.91*** 0.65*** 0.85*** 0.06ns
H 20 0.86*** 0.81*** 0.90*** 0.72*** 0.83*** -0.02ns
H 25 0.87*** 0.80*** 0.89*** 0.74*** 0.82*** -0.05ns
H 30 0.88*** 0.80*** 0.89*** 0.76*** 0.81*** -0.08ns
H 40 0.91*** 0.78*** 0.87*** 0.79*** 0.79*** -0.13ns
H 50 0.92*** 0.77*** 0.86*** 0.81*** 0.76*** -0.17ns
H 60 0.92*** 0.75*** 0.84*** 0.82*** 0.74*** -0.20*
H 70 0.92*** 0.73*** 0.82*** 0.84*** 0.72*** -0.23*
H 75 0.92*** 0.72*** 0.81*** 0.84*** 0.71*** -0.24**
H 80 0.92*** 0.71*** 0.80*** 0.85*** 0.70*** -0.25**
H 90 0.92*** 0.70*** 0.79*** 0.86*** 0.68*** -0.28**
H 95 0.92*** 0.68*** 0.77*** 0.86*** 0.66*** -0.30***
H 99 0.91*** 0.66*** 0.74*** 0.86*** 0.63*** -0.33***
Other LiDAR metrics      
PCzero -0.39*** -0.26** -0.47*** -0.35*** -0.59*** -0.42***
Elev. kurtosis 0.08ns 0.23* 0.30*** 0.01ns 0.32*** 0.20*
Elev. skewness -0.53*** -0.29** -0.43*** -0.56*** -0.45*** 0.10ns
Elev. CV -0.51*** -0.61*** -0.72*** -0.35*** -0.75*** -0.32***
Elev. SD 0.60*** 0.18* 0.24** 0.69*** 0.14ns -0.56***
Elev. IQ 0.53*** 0.12ns 0.15ns 0.63*** 0.04ns -0.58***
Stand metrics       
Mean top height - 0.78*** 0.85*** 0.88*** 0.74*** -0.23**
Crown height 0.78*** - 0.89*** 0.60*** 0.80*** 0.03ns
Volume 0.85*** 0.89*** - 0.70*** 0.96*** 0.12ns
Mean diameter at breast height 0.88*** 0.60*** 0.70*** - 0.63*** -0.46***
Basal area 0.74*** 0.80*** 0.96*** 0.63*** - 0.29**
Stand density -0.23** 0.03ns 0.12ns -0.46*** 0.29** -
Stand age 0.62*** 0.37*** 0.49*** 0.74*** 0.45*** -0.39***
  1. Values shown include the correlation coefficient, followed by the P category. ***, **, * denote significance at P = 0.001, 0.01 and 0.05, respectively; ns = not significant at P = 0.05. Values shown in bold represent the LiDAR variable that had the highest correlation coefficient with the associated stand metric.